#### Explaining Puzzles Asset Pricing and Portfolio Choice Theory

When a financial analyst values a stock, they use the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) to find the net present value (NPV) of future cash flows. The expected return can also be used as a discount rate to determine the present value of future cash flows from the stock. If the stock price is $75 and the present value of future cash flows using the 16% rate is $75, the stock is fairly valued.

## Asset Pricing and Portfolio Choice Theory

Finally, the market risk premium is based on a theoretical value. Even using a historical average from a major index is imperfect as there is no guarantee that the market will perform similarly. Let’s use the CAPM formula above to calculate the expected return (ER) of a stock over one year. In the CAPM formula, the risk premium—also referred to as the market risk premium—is calculated in the (MR – RFR) component. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution to get full access on this article. The publisher has supplied this book in encrypted form, which means that you need to install free software in order to unlock and read it.

### Understanding the Capital Asset Pricing Model

Beta is calculated using a regression of historical stock returns. However, historical stock returns don’t follow a normal distribution. Upward and downward price movements are not equally risky, which makes some observers wonder if it’s a completely accurate measure of risk. If your institution is not listed or you cannot sign in to your institutionâ€™s website, please contact your librarian or administrator. A higher risk-free rate would increase the cost of capital while a lower rate would reduce it—either would significantly impact the outcome of a CAPM calculation. The CAPM plays a key role in financial modeling and asset valuation.

## Why Is the CAPM Important?

Properties of the demand for a single risky asset are derived from second‐order risk aversion and decreasing absolute risk aversion. Optimal investments are independent of initial wealth for investors with constant absolute risk aversion. Optimal investments are affine functions of initial wealth for investors iwth linear risk tolerance. The optimal portfolio for an investor with constant absolute risk aversion is derived when asset returns are normally distributed.

### Related Books

If the present value is greater than $75, the stock is cheap. The CAPM formula describes the expected return for investing in a security that’s equal to the risk-free return plus a risk premium. Specific risk can be reduced by diversification, or investing in a basket of different assets—a concept that’s at the heart of modern portfolio theory (MPT). But systemic risk is a tougher nut to crack since it impacts all investment assets in a similar way. Options, option portfolios, put‐call parity, and option bounds are explained.

Shibboleth/Open Athens technology is used to provide single sign-on between your institutionâ€™s website and Oxford Academic. An investor can use their own expectations of market return or base the return on historical data from an index, most commonly the S&P 500 for stocks. Typically, access is provided across an institutional network to a range of IP addresses. This authentication occurs automatically, and it is not possible to sign out of an IP authenticated account.

- You can read this ebook online in a web browser, without downloading anything or installing software.
- The capital asset pricing model concentrates on measuring systemic risk and its impact on the value of an asset.
- The institutional subscription may not cover the content that you are trying to access.
- The first two parts of the book explain portfolio choice and asset pricing theory in single‐period, discrete‐time, and continuous‐time models.

CAPM helps factor in systemic risks to estimate the fair value of an asset and understand the relationship between risk and expected returns. A bedrock principle of all investing is that returns are directly proportional to risk. In other words, the more risk you take on, the higher returns you hope to earn. The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) helps investors understand the returns they can expect given the level of risk they assume.

Investors with quadratic utility have mean‐variance preferences, and investors have mean‐variance preferences when returns are elliptically distributed. Continuous‐time filtering is explained, including the Kalman filter and filtering for a Markov chain with hidden states. Filtering theory is applied to analyze portfolio choice and equilibrium asset prices. When the expected return of an asset is unknown and is estimated from past returns, the myopic demand is a momentum strategy.

The WACC equation uses the expected value calculated from the CAPM as the cost of equity. The company asset pricing and portfolio choice theory value is divided by the number of shares outstanding to arrive at the fair value of the stock.

For librarians and administrators, your personal account also provides access to institutional account management. Here you will find options to view and activate subscriptions, manage institutional settings and access options, access usage statistics, and more. This book is intended as a textbook for asset pricing theory courses at the Ph.D. or Masters in Quantitative Finance level and https://forexarena.net/ as a reference for financial researchers. The first two parts of the book explain portfolio choice and asset pricing theory in single‐period, discrete‐time, and continuous‐time models. For valuation, the focus throughout is on stochastic discount factors and their properties. Traditional factor models, including the CAPM, are related to or derived from stochastic discount factors.

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You can read this ebook online in a web browser, without downloading anything or installing software. Rebecca Baldridge, CFA, is an investment professional and financial writer with over 20 years’ experience in the financial services industry. She is a founding partner in Quartet Communications, a financial communications and content creation firm.

Changes of numeraire (measure) are discussed, and the Black‐Scholes formula is derived. The option greeks are defined, and delta hedging is explained. The smooth pasting condition for valuing an American option is explained.